Nepal's Rich Tapestry: Exploring the Diverse National Heritage Recognized by UNESCO - Mero Kuraa


Nepal's Rich Tapestry: Exploring the Diverse National Heritage Recognized by UNESCO

‘Heritage’ refers to the traditions, achievements, beliefs, etc., that are part of the history of a group or nation valuable objects  and qualities such as historical buildings and cultural traditions that have
been passed down from the previous generation to the present generation. The heritage reflects the art, culture, and tradition of the country. Heritage is included in the list of the World Heritage Sites.

Nepal is a country having a various culture and natural heritage. Temples, monasteries, rest houses, inns, etc are religious heritage. Language, arts, dress, the way of living, etc are cultural heritage. Himalayan, mountains, rivers, waterfalls, lakes, forests, national parks, wildlife reserves, etc are natural heritage. All these religious, cultural, and natural heritage are national properties. Besides, the public roads, bridges, chautara, etc are also national properties. All the public properties which are under the ownership of the state/nation are the national heritage. UNESCO has included Sagarmatha National Park in 1979 AD. &  Chitwan National Park in the list of World Heritage in 1984

The following are national heritage listed as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.


1. Lumbini

Lumbini is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha, it is a peerless landmark of the Buddhist world. Lumbini is recognized as the pilgrimage of all the people of the world who follow Buddhism. UNESCO enlisted

Lumbini was a World Heritage Site in 1997 AD. The Ashoka Pillar which was made by Emperor Ashoka in 245 BC is located here. There are also the Puskarani Pond and Maya Devi Temple. In 1970 AD, 13 nations including Nepal formed the Lumbini Development Committee and it started the Lumbini Development Master Plan. Under the plan, various countries of the world have constructed monasteries, stupas, etc in Lumbini. Countries like China, Myanmar, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, India, Thailand, France, Germany, etc have constructed many monasteries and stupas. Libraries, Museums, Research centers, etc are also located in Nepal.


2. Pashupatinath

Pashupatinath is a holy place for the Hindus. The Pashupati area includes the temple of Pashupati, Deupatan, Jaya Begeshori, Gaurighat, Kutumbahal, Gaushala, Pingan Nath, and Sleshmantak forest. There are about 492 temples, chaityas, satals, etc. Temples are constructed in various styles. There are about one thousand Shivalingas in the Pashupati area. From Pashupatinath you can see gold-painted images of guardian deities,chaturmukh means four-faced statue,Arya ghat, Gauri ghat, Brahma

Temple, Chandeshwor, which is inscribed Lichhavi linga from the seventh century,pandra Shivalaya means fifteen shrines, Gorakhnath and Vishworup Temple, Guhyeshwori Temple, Kirateshwor Mahadev Mandir & Surya ghat. The Pashupatinath temple has two lever roofs of the temple are embellished with gold and the four main doors are adorned with silver. The temple is famous for its awe-inspiring and astounding pagoda architecture. The western door has a large statue of Bull is known as Nandi is ornamented in gold. The black stone idols near about six fit in height and circumstance. The present architectural nature of Pashupatinath temple came into existence as a result of renovation by Queen Ganga Devi during the reign of Shivasimha Malla ( 1578 – 1620 A.D ).

Sagarmatha National Park

3. Sagarmatha National Park

             Sagarmatha is an exceptional area with dramatic mountains, glaciers, and deep valleys, dominated by Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world (8,848 m). Several rare species, such as
the snow leopard and the lesser panda, are found in the park. Sagarmatha National Park was established on 19th July 1976 AD. Sagarmatha National Park is located in the Solukhumbu district of the Sagarmatha zone. Sagarmatha National Park was enlisted in the World Heritage Site in 1976 AD. Sagarmatha National Park is extended in the 1148 square kilometer area. The highest peak of the world Sagarmatha is located here. Besides, Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Nuptse, Pumori, Amadablam, etc are other major peaks located in Sagarmatha National Park. The major vegetation found in this park is Rhododendron, Dhupia, bhojpatra, etc. The birds and animals like wild yak, musk deer, red panda, snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, Lophophorus (Danfe), polar cheetah, etc are found here.

Chitwan National Park

4. Chitwan National Park

             Chitwan National Park is one of the most important tourist destinations in Nepal. Chitwan
National Park is located in Chitwan district and 120 kilometers south-west of Kathmandu. Chitwan National Park is especially famous for the one-horned rhino, which is rarely found in the world. The Royal Bengal Tiger is another important wildlife found in Chitwan National Park. Besides this, elephants, crocodiles, tigers, peacocks, etc are other important wildlife and varieties of birds found in Chitwan National Park.

Hanumandhoka Durbar Square

5. Hanuman-Dhoka Durbar Square

Hanumandhoka Durbar Square is located in the heart of Kathmandu city. The Malla kings
ruled over Kathmandu from Hanumandhoka Durbar Square Palace. After the conquest of the Kathmandu valley, King Prithvi Narayan Shah started to rule from here and it became the capital of unified Nepal. Hanumandhoka Durbar Square is said that Pratap Malla erected the statue of Hanuman in this palace and it was named Hanumandhoka. Besides Hanumandhoka, Basantapur Palace, Taleju temple, Museum, House of Kumari, Kasthamandap, a Kettledrum, etc are the ancient heritages located here.

Patan Durbar Square

6. Patan Durbar Square

Patan Durbar Square was the place of Malla kings during medieval Nepal. Patan Durbar Square is located in the Lalitpur district. Krishna temple with 21 golden pinnacles (gajur) is the masterpiece of Malla art and architecture. Besides this, these are Bhimsen temple, Bishwanath temple, Jagat Narayan temple, Mahabauddha, Kumbheshor Mahadev, the temple of Rato Machhindranath, etc.

Bhaktapur Durbar Square

7. Bhaktapur Durbar Square

Bhaktapur Durbar Square was the place from where the Malla kings of Bhaktapur ruled over their kingdom. The heritage like Fifty-five Window-palace, a statue of Bhupatindra Malla, the National Art Gallery, the Golden Gate, Nyatapola, etc is located here. Bhaktapur Durbar Square is enlisted in World Heritage in 1979 AD.

Changunarayan Temple

8. Changunarayan Temple

Changunarayan Temple is the oldest temple in Kathmandu Valley came into existence in the 4th century. Changunarayan Temple is adorned by some of the best specimens of stone, wood, and metal craft in the valley. The temple stands as the epitome of the culture, religion, history, and faith of Kathmandu Valley.
Changunarayan Temple is located in Bhaktapur district and 22 kilometers east of Kathmandu. Changunarayan Temple is constructed during the rule of Lichchhavi king Mandev. There is a Lord Vishnu’s idol with ten heads and ten arms. This is a fine example of stone carving from the 5th century. Changunarayan Temple is made in Pagoda style. There is also inscriptions carved in stone, wood, and metal craft made in the 5th century.

Bauddhanath Stupa

9. Bauddhanath Stupa

Bauddhanath Stupa, the biggest stupa in Nepal, lies about 7 km east of the capital. Bauddhanath Stupa is one of the oldest stupas in the country. It is believed that this stupa was constructed around the 5th century. There are 45 Buddhist monasteries in this area. UNESCO enlisted it in the World Heritage Site in 1979 AD.


10. Swayambhunath

The Buddhist temple of Swayambhunath is situated on the top of a hill in Kathmandu and is one of the most popular holy places and an instantly recognizable symbol of Nepal. The temple is
colloquially known as “monkey temple” because of the large tribe of roaming monkeys found there. It is believed that this temple was constructed before the 5th century. Swayambhunath temple is regarded as the symbol of religious tolerance as it is the temple of the Hindu goddess Saraswati. There are other stupas and idols also. Recently, the biggest statue of Buddha has been constructed near Swayambhunath temple.

Besides these heritages enlisted in World Heritage Site, there are many other natural and cultural heritages in Nepal such as Bardiya National Park, Shivapuri National Park, Halesi of Khotang, Swargadwari of Pyuthan, Gosaikunda of Rasuwa, Kalika temple of Baglung, Chintan Devi of Dhankuta, Pathibhara of Taplejung, Muktinath of Mustang, Ram Janaki temple of Janakpur, Jaya Bageshori of Nepalgunj, Chandranath of Jumla, etc.

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